عنوان مقاله [English]
With the emergence of Islam, different sciences were developed in response to religious and rational questions of human being, each of which has a background about the texts and the speeches attributed to the lawmaker. However, the truth is that the flexibility of Sharia is not limited to shallow and superficial understanding of these texts and it requires a precise and structural approach to inference of Sharia laws and correct understanding of religious texts and speeches. Hence, referring to Quranic verses and traditions, without specific criteria and solely for the purpose of treating the appearances of the texts and the lack of a proper structure for understanding the texts leads to accuse people of disbelief and as a result of the spread of Takfir in Islamic societies. This paper seeks to analyze one of the most important effective legal methods in expanding Takfir in different historical periods. Looking at the historical course of the jurisprudence of Takfir in Islam, we understand that one of the roots of the production and expansion of Takfir is a particular method called “Resorting to the Appearance”, meaning “Superficial Understanding” and direct referral without intermediary to texts. Although various causes have been mentioned for the Takfiri currents, but the expansion of Takfir was due to the merging of other sciences with jurisprudence. Therefore, some jurisprudents provided the expansion of Takfir through the appearance of texts in the science of jurisprudence and Religious views. Now, after centuries, Islamic societies are suffering from the crises created by these groups due to the lack of prevention through the promotion of the correct and rigorous methods of Ijtihad.